Wat is microservices-architectuur?

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Wat is microservices-architectuur?

Organizations today are running increasingly strategic application workloads in the cloud to benefit from efficiencies in cost, scale, agility and the ubiquity of reliable cloud hosting services. Microservices-based architecture is the key driver of this trend, and is fast becoming the prime choice for building new applications that scale efficiently and support agile development practices.

Microservices architecture takes a single application and breaks down its functional components into a series of loosely coupled tiny applications that talk and coordinate with each other, usually over a network. This means near 100% perceived uptime for users with a much better user experience, while for enterprises it means reduced costs. Leading brands like Amazon, Netflix, and eBay have been using microservices to launch functions like shopping cart, credit card processing, and search. Using microservices, many businesses can overcome the problems and delays that are faced with traditional, monolithic application development and management. Let’s look at Microservices in detail.

Wat zijn microservices?

Simply put, imagine an app that is a composite of several independent functional systems working together. Microservices are small self-contained apps that can be built, deployed, and managed independently, using modern, cloud-native processes and technologies to automate the provisioning and operating of these services. Microservices are also called Microservice architecture and are a method of designing software systems that create an application as a bunch of loosely joined services.

The key reason Microservices were developed is that certain applications become easier to build and maintain when they are broken down into several smaller components that work together. Each component can be easily and completely decoupled from each other, allowing developers to run their own process and communicate autonomously without having to rely on other teams.

monolithisch versus microservices

Monolithische versus microservices-architectuur

The monolithic architecture pattern is the traditional architectural style that is largely prevalent. A monolithic application built as a single, autonomous unit. This structure is based around the concept of a single, indivisible unit, including the server side, client side, and the database. While this style has been an integral part of many businesses, its numerous limitations and issues are motivating more and more to make the switch to Microservices. Monolithic applications are hard to change and it takes a long time. As monolithic applications scale, they can become quite complex, so the overall development is generally longer. Moreover, each change implemented can impact the entire system, requiring an entire rebuilt and deployed version of software, even if it is a modification just to a small section of code. If developers want to enhance particular features and functions of an application, they have to scale the entire application making the process complex.

Microservices on the other hand allow developers to take a simpler, faster approach towards managing applications by breaking down the monolithic unit into independent ones that function as separate services that communicate with each other through APIs. Every service has its own logic and codebase. However, building an application as a microservice from ground up takes longer time, so it would be best to build the application as a monolith and then move towards a microservice approach. That’s because as the monolithic application matures the functions that should be split out into microservices will be more obvious.

Waarom zijn microservices beter dan monolithische toepassingen?

Het antwoord is simpel: beheersbaarheid. Wanneer applicaties of software worden gebouwd als een samenstelling van onafhankelijke, modulaire componenten, worden ze gemakkelijker te beheren, onderhouden en testen. Ze helpen ondernemingen flexibeler te zijn en de kwaliteit van hun workflows te verbeteren, terwijl ze de tijd verminderen die nodig is om functies te verbeteren of de productie te verbeteren. Zolang de afhankelijkheden tussen microservices op de juiste manier worden beheerd, kunnen er eenvoudig wijzigingen worden aangebracht om de teambehoeften en -prestaties te optimaliseren. Microservices hebben zichzelf al bewezen als een superieur systeem dan monolithische applicaties, vooral als het gaat om grote bedrijfsapplicaties die doorgaans worden ontwikkeld door gedistribueerde en diverse teams.

voordelen van microservices

Voordelen van Microservices-architectuur

Developer Independence 

When it comes to developing applications based on microservices architecture, developers find it easier because it allows much more developer independence than traditional systems. Small developer teams are able to work in parallel and are more agile which makes it easier to iterate faster than large development teams. They can also scale the services on their own without having to wait for a larger and more complex team.

Higher Resilience  

A big advantage of microservices is the quality of isolation and resilience. In microservices architecture, even if just one of the components fails due to any issue, such as the technology becoming outdated or the code involved being such that it can’t be developed any further, developers can create a whole new component on the side without any interruptions. This means that the rest of the application continues to function independently. Developers thus have the freedom to develop and deploy services as needed without having to wait on decisions concerning the entire application.

Easy to Scale  

Due to the fact that microservices are made of much smaller components as compared to monolithic software, they utilize fewer resources and are therefore easier to scale in order to meet the growing demand. And this can be as specific as scaling just a single component of the application. As a result of this isolation feature, microservices can properly function even during large changes in size and volume, making it an ideal method for enterprises dealing with a wide range of platforms and devices.

Autonoom ontwikkeld

In vergelijking met monolithische toepassingen zijn afzonderlijke componenten gemakkelijker in te passen in continue leveringspijplijnen en complexe implementatiescenario’s. Dat komt omdat ontwikkelaars alleen kunnen werken aan de gespecificeerde service die moet worden gewijzigd of verbeterd en opnieuw moet worden geïmplementeerd wanneer een wijziging nodig is, zonder dat dit invloed heeft op andere componenten, die onafhankelijk kunnen blijven functioneren. Naast de voor de hand liggende voordelen die dit het systeem biedt, is dit autonome karakter ook gunstig voor het team omdat ze kunnen schalen en ontwikkelen zonder dat er veel coördinatie met andere teams nodig is. Dit is een enorm voordeel voor bedrijven die meer verspreid zijn en werknemers zich op afstand bevinden. Er kunnen snel technische beslissingen worden genomen die in een oogwenk met andere services kunnen worden geïntegreerd. Cross-functionaliteit is nog nooit zo eenvoudig geweest.

Beter voor het bedrijfsleven

Microservice-architecturen zijn ontworpen om af te stemmen op de grenzen van verschillende bedrijfsdomeinen, georganiseerd rond mogelijkheden zoals logistiek, facturering, enz. Dit vergroot de onafhankelijkheid en het begrip in de hele organisatie, aangezien verschillende teams in staat zijn om een specifiek product te gebruiken en het vervolgens gedurende de hele levensduur te bezitten en te onderhouden.

Evolutionary

A very important benefit of microservices architecture is that it is highly evolutionary. In any business enterprise it is likely that there will be newer requirements. Microservices are an excellent option for such scenarios where developers can’t fully predict what devices will be accessed by the application in the future, and they allow quick and controlled changes to the software without slowing the application as a whole.

Verbetert de productiviteit

Complexe projecten vragen om grote ontwikkelteams die moeten samenwerken. Met microservices kunnen applicatieontwikkelingsprojecten worden opgedeeld in kleinere, onafhankelijke eenheden. Dit betekent dat teams onafhankelijk kunnen handelen met betrekking tot domeinlogica, wat de coördinatie en inspanning minimaliseert. Bovendien kunnen de teams die verantwoordelijk zijn voor elke microservice hun eigen technologische beslissingen nemen, afhankelijk van hun behoeften.

Integrates Easily with Legacy Systems  

Monolithic systems are not very easy to maintain, mostly because legacy systems can be poorly structured, poorly tested, and/ or dependent upon outdated technologies. In contrast, microservices can work alongside legacy systems to improve the code and replace old parts of the system. Integration is easy and can solve many of the problems that come with monolithic systems.

microservice-uitdagingen

Uitdagingen met betrekking tot microservices

While many enterprises are reconfiguring their monolithic in favor of a microservices approach, microservices may not necessarily be the right answer in all scenarios. It comes with its own set of challenges. Microservices architecture may not be the only perfect way to design an application. Here are some of the challenges associated to microservices:

Related Complexity

A monolithic system’s complexity comes from how challenging it can be to understand how different code interacts. On the other hand, microservices architecture’s complexity results from having a lot of the code split out into individual services. The higher the number of services involved, the more complex it gets.

Microservices kunnen duur zijn

Netwerkaanroepen die door API’s worden gedaan, zijn niet gratis en de kosten kunnen oplopen tot iets enorms. Bovendien kunnen de kosten van de inspanningen van de ontwikkelaar die betrokken zijn bij het opbreken van een monoliet, een anders onnodige uitgave veroorzaken.

Beveiligingsrisico’s

Elk communicatiepad via het internet creëert een nieuw beveiligingsrisico dat moet worden aangepakt en gecontroleerd.

Microservices Require More Work

The operation of a microservices architecture-based system usually requires more effort by a developer because there are more deployable units, and each of these need to be deployed, managed and monitored. Changes to interfaces must be implemented so that an independent deployment of individual microservices is still possible.

Testen kan ingewikkeld zijn

Omdat alle microservices samen moeten worden getest, kan één microservice de testfase blokkeren en de inzet van de andere microservices voorkomen. Er zijn meer services of interfaces om te testen, en testen moet onafhankelijk zijn voor beide kanten van de interface.

Changing Multiple Services is Difficult

Changes that affect multiple microservices can be more difficult to implement. In a microservice system, changes require coordinated developer effort.

Waarom zijn microservices belangrijk?

Microservices has been gaining a lot of traction in the development community. One key reason behind this is because microservices architecture addresses problems that modern enterprises often face, such as responding to market demands, handling spikes in traffic, and being resilient in times of failure, and so on. Microservices aid agility by allowing developer teams to focus on a narrower domain, increasing scalability by giving smaller units of scale so additional instances of a service can be whipped up to cater to growing demand. They also help enhance fault tolerance providing isolation units that can contain the scope of faults.

The beginning of Microservices lies originally with web companies that wanted to be able to manage millions of users with high variance in traffic as well as changing market demands, without affecting the performance of the website in any way. These companies pioneered various approaches to achieve this, such as technologies, design patterns, and operational platforms etc., and these were shared with the open source community to help other organizations to adopt Microservices.

As of now there is no defined formal standard for microservices architecture, but there are several common characteristics that define a Microservices architecture. Some of these are independently deployable services, automated deployment, intelligence in the endpoints, and decentralized control of languages and data.

Best practices voor het ontwerpen van microservices

  • Maintain a limited and focused business scope for each specified microservice in order to meet the agility in development and delivery of services. This is referred to as the single responsibility principle.
  • During the design/ development phase, developers need to discover and define the boundaries of the microservices and align them with business capabilities. This best practice is also known as bounded context in domain-driven design.
  • Developers need to make sure that the designed of microservices matches the agile/independent development and deployment requirements of the application. The development team should focus on the scope of the microservice, instead of considering reducing the size of the service.
  • Another best practice is to start with somewhat broad service boundaries initially, and at a later stage in the development process allow business requirements to refactor the smaller ones.
bewegende microservices

Overstappen naar een op microservices gebaseerde architectuur

To begin with, developers can relax because a very solid benefit of microservices architecture is that developers are not required to move away entirely from a monolithic system all in one go. Microservices can be transitioned to gradually. That’s why most IT environments in organizations deploy a mix of both microservices and monolithic applications. With this in mind, let’s look at the key steps involved in moving to a microservices approach.

Agile applicatie-ontwikkeling

In de meeste situaties wordt de overgang naar microservices gedreven door de overgang van een watervalbenadering naar agile applicatieontwikkeling. Het adopteren en leren van agile methodieken is daarom een zeer belangrijke eerste stap. De verschuiving betekent ook dat teams moeten worden gereorganiseerd rond de specifieke microservice die ze moeten ondersteunen.

Audit Existing Applications

Another critical step is evaluating individual monolithic applications to see which existing features or components of those apps can be separated into their own microservice. A good idea is to start with such features and begin a migration path to microservices, instead of performing a ground-up rewriting of all existing applications. Evaluate between re-use vs re-write and make the smarter, more efficient choice. This stage is also an appropriate time to assess which applications are no longer useful to the company’s workflow.

Establish Mandates to Govern Application Development

Now that you have decided to transition to a microservices architecture, it is time to put in place defining policies that will mandate various aspects of microservices-based application development. While a full list will be longer, some of the vital points are:

  • All new applications must be built based on an agile approach and microservices pattern
  • All new features to be added to existing monoliths will be developed as separate services or follow a microservice pattern rather than simply adding it to the existing monolithic application code or current architecture
  • Development teams have to lay the groundwork for cloud providers, platforms and tools that will be used to avoid uncontrolled adoption of a multitude of tools and technologies which could run into hundreds

Synchroniseer IT-infrastructuur en ontwikkeling

Creëer een fundamenteel platform dat uw IT-infrastructuur automatisch koppelt aan uw ontwikkelplatforms, processen en tools. Het platform moet het ontwikkelaarsteam alle middelen en serverloze functionaliteit kunnen bieden die ze nodig hebben om snel applicaties te bouwen en te onderhouden. Het moet ook in staat zijn om bestaande infrastructuur met een openbare cloud en SaaS-services in uw onderneming te integreren, met behoud van beveiligings-, beheer- en netwerkvereisten die specifiek zijn voor uw bedrijf.

Conclusie

Veel IT-teams zijn nog steeds onzeker over de architectuur van microservices, die eerlijk gezegd erg nieuw is in vergelijking met monolithische structuren die de ontwikkeling van software/applicaties al tientallen jaren beheersen. Hun terughoudendheid ten aanzien van deze transitie is dus natuurlijk omdat verandering altijd moeilijk is. Maar de migratie naar een applicatiegestuurde IT-architectuur om de groeiende acceptatie van microservices te ondersteunen, zal doorgaan en traditionele systeemingenieurs zullen mee moeten evolueren met de overgang.

Om de acceptatie van deze nieuwe verandering gemakkelijker te maken, moeten ontwikkelingsteams de zakelijke vereisten begrijpen en gebruikmaken van de kennis en expertise van hun technologiepartners. Dit zal hen helpen inzicht te krijgen in de belangrijkste componenten van de microservices-architectuur, te leren wat nodig is om de overstap te maken en te bepalen hoe het IT-team zich het meest effectief kan aanpassen aan de nieuwe infrastructuurrealiteit.

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